The Seeds of Science/Roots of Reading Assessment System offers both the power and flexibility a teacher needs to monitor students’ growth. Each unit includes a summative assessment booklet with a suite of pre/post assessment options in science and literacy. Each unit also includes a formative assessment system with formal and informal assessment opportunities throughout the unit that allow teachers to monitor student progress and adjust instruction. Detailed scoring guides help teachers communicate clear expectations and give constructive feedback. Assessment items are developed and chosen based on a rigorous validation process with attention to providing coverage of standards and creating fair and equitable assessments free of bias.